Hashimoto Thyroiditis and Dyslipidemia in Childhood: A Review
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Hashimoto autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism in the pediatric population. Development of AIT is mediated mainly by cellular immune response directed toward thyroid autoantigens, leading to inflammation and impaired function of thyroid gland. Both thyroid dysfunction and inflammation affect the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. The alterations in lipid profile worsen with the advancement of hypothyroidism, ranging from discrete changes in euthyroid AIT patients, to atherogenic dyslipidemia in the overt hypothyroidism. In this review, characteristics of dyslipidemia in pediatric AIT patients, and the consequences in respect to the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development are discussed. Additionally, benefit of L-thyroxine treatment on serum lipid profile in pediatric AIT patients is addressed. Finally, potential usefulness of novel lipid biomarkers, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), non-cholesterol stero...ls, low-density lipoprotein particle size and number, and high-density lipoprotein structure and functionality in AIT patients is also covered. Further longitudinal studies are needed in order to elucidate the long-term cardiovascular outcomes of dyslipidemia in pediatric patients with Hashimoto AIT.
Keywords:children / dyslipidemia / Hashimoto autoimmune thyroiditis / L-thyroxine treatment / novel lipid biomarkers
Source:Frontiers in Endocrinology, 2019, 10
- Frontiers Media S.A.