Environmental and Seasonal Impacts on the Chemical Composition of Satureja horvatii Šilić (Lamiaceae) Essential Oils
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The chemical composition of the essential oils of Satureja horvatii SILIC from two natural habitats (Mt. Orjen and Mt. Lovcen in Montenegro) and from cultivated plants (Belgrade, Serbia) were characterized. For the latter, plants from the locus classicus, i.e., Orjenske Lokve (Mt. Orjen), were transferred to Belgrade and, after three years of cultivation, the chemical composition of their essential oils at different phenological stages was analyzed. The essential oils were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields and chemical compositions of the S. horvatii oils showed significant differences between the plants collected in the natural habitats and those from cultivation, as well as between the plants at different phenological stages. In the populations from the natural habitats, growing in Mediterranean conditions, the most abundant oil constituents were the phenols thymol (63.7% in the samples from Mt. Orjen) or carvac...rol (68.1% in the samples from Mt. Lovcen), while the oils from the cultivated plants (Belgrade), growing in continental conditions, were dominated by linalool (up to 65.8 and 55.9% in average). The basic characteristics of the essential oil from plants at the early phenological stage (before flowering) were high percentages of linalool (37.4%), thymol (27.3%), and carvacrol (12.2%). At the stage of flowering, the percentage of linalool (56.6-57.5%) increased, while those of thymol (15.5-15.8%) and carvacrol (1.4-1.5%) significantly decreased. The essential oil of plants in the full stage of fruiting was characterized by the domination of linalool (58.4 and 65.8%) and lower percentages of thymol (7.6 and 1.3%) and carvacrol (0.7 and 0.1%). In conclusion, the oil composition of S. horvatii was found to depend on the pedoclimatic conditions of the habitat and the phenological stage of the plants.
Source:Chemistry & Biodiversity, 2011, 8, 3, 483-493
- Wiley-Blackwell, Malden