Pharmacology of oral hypoglycemic drugs
Farmakologija oralnih hipoglikemijskih lekova
In patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, non-insulin antihyperglycemic therapy is aimed to control symptoms of hyperglycemia and to limit microvascular complications. It is introduced early after diagnosis of the disease. Antihyperglycemic agents may predominantly act through one of four ways. The involved mechanisms are: enhancement of insulin secretion, through which act sulfonylureas, meglitinides and two types of incretin mimetics - glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity -gliptins; suppression of hepatic glucose production - biguanides; enhanced sensitivity to insulin - thiazolidinediones, and decrease of the rate or extent of glucose absorption: islet amyloid polypeptide (amylin) analogs and α-glucosidase inhibitors. With exception of GLP-1 receptor agonists and pramlintide, a synthetic form of amylin, all these drugs are administered orally. Currently, lifestyle modifications and metformin are the cornerstone ...of the initial management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, while the meglitinides, GLP-1 agonists, gliptins, sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones represent components of dual or triple therapy, as necessary. Pramlintide and α-glucosidase inhibitors are mainly used as adjuncts to other therapeutic measures. Besides the mechanisms of action, safety profiles of different drug classes are of huge importance in governing the choice of therapy for individual patients.
Keywords:Î±-glucosidase inhibitors / Gliptins / Meglitinides / Metformin / Sulfonylureas / Thiazolidinediones
Source:Arhiv za farmaciju, 2011, 61, 4, 393-405
- Savez farmaceutskih udruženja Srbije, Beograd