Risk Factors Associated with Coronary Artery Calcification Should Be Examined before Kidney Transplantation
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The best treatment for end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is kidney transplantation, but the renal transplant recipients still have a higher incidence of cardiovascular events compared with general population. Cardiovascular risk factors were imposed long before ESRD, as the majority of patients starting dialysis or kidney transplantation already have signs of advanced atherosclerosis. Artery calcification is an organized, regulated process similar to bone formation. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is found frequently in advanced atherosclerotic lesions and could be a useful marker of them. We evaluated the prevalence of CAC in 49 stable renal transplant recipients and in 48 age- and gender-matched patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in stages 2-5 not requiring dialysis to assess risk factors associated with CAC. Computed tomography was used for CAC detection and quantification (CAC score). The prevalence of CAC was 43.8% in transplant recipients and 16.7% in CKD patien...ts (p lt 0.001). Transplant recipients with CAC were significantly older and had longer duration of CKD and/or dialysis than recipients without CAC. In contrast, the serum levels of fetuin A (an inhibitor of vascular calcification) and albumin were significantly lower in CKD patients with CAC than those without CAC. During the observation period (30 months), 30 patients, including 23 CKD patients, began dialysis, and 4 transplant recipients and 2 CKD patients died. Independent predictors of mortality were age, serum amyloid A and the CAC score. In conclusion, the examination and prevention of risk factors associated with atherosclerosis should be started at the beginning of renal failure.
Keywords:chronic kidney disease / coronary artery calcification / fetuin A / inflammation / renal transplant recipient
Source:Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 2012, 226, 2, 137-144
- Tohoku Univ Medical Press, Sendai