Imidazoline-1 Receptor Ligands as Apoptotic Agents: Pharmacophore Modeling and Virtual Docking Study
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The group of imidazoline-1 receptors (I-1-IR) agonists encompasses drugs are currently used in treatment of high blood pressure and hyperglycemia. The I-1-IR protein structures have not been determined yet, but Nischarin protein that binds numerous imidazoline ligands inducing initiation of various cell-signaling cascades, including apoptosis, is identified as strong I-1-IR candidate. In this study we examined apoptotic activity of rilmenidine (potent I-1-IR agonist), moxonidine (moderate I-1-IR agonist), and efaroxan (I-1-IR partial agonist) on cancer cell line (K562) expressing Nischarin. The Nischarine domains mapping was performed by use of the Informational Spectrum Method (ISM). The 3D-Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR) and virtual docking studies of 29 I-1-IR ligands (agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists) were carried out on I-1-IR receptors binding affinities. The 3D-QSAR study defined 3D-pharmacophore models for I-1-IR agonistic and I-1-IR antagonist...ic activity and created regression model for prediction of I-1-IR activity of novel compounds. The 3D-QSAR models were applied for design and evaluation of novel I-1-IR agonists and I-1-IR antagonists. The most promising I-1-IR ligands with enhanced activities than parent compounds were proposed for synthesis. The results of 3D-QSAR, ISM, and virtual docking studies were in perfect agreement and allowed precise definition of binding mode of I-1-IR agonists (Arg 758, Arg 866, Val 981, and Glu 1057) and significantly different binding modes of I-1-IR antagonists or partial I-1-IR agonists. The performed theoretical study provides reliable system for evaluation of I-1-IR agonistic and I-1-IR antagonistic activity of novel I-1-IR ligands, as drug candidates with anticancer activities.
Keywords:Apoptotic activity / I-1-imidazoline receptor / I-1-IR agonist / I-1-IR antagonist / pharmacophore modeling / structure activity relationship / virtual docking
Source:Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening, 2013, 16, 4, 298-319
- Bentham Science Publ Ltd, Sharjah