An extensive study of electrochemical behavior of brimonidine and its determination at glassy carbon electrode
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The electrochemical behavior of brimonidine (BRIM), an antiglaucoma agent applied in therapy for lowering high intraocular pressure, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The reduction of BRIM occurs as one-step quasi-reversible reaction in acid and neutral medium, reaching the full reversibility in alkaline solutions. Reduction process involves the transfer of two electrons and two protons at the pyrazine ring of quinoxaline moiety, forming a dihydro-derivative. In acid and neutral solutions, brimonidine reduction product is partly oxidized to its hydroxy-derivative. BRIM is also oxidized irreversibly with the transfer of one electron and one proton at secondary amine moiety. The effects of pH of the electrolyte solution, scan rate and BRIM concentration were monitored. The nature of the electrode process was found to be controlled by the adsorption at pH > 6 and the total surface conce...ntration of brimonidine adsorbed onto the GCE surface at pH 7, Gamma(BRIM) = 1.35 x 10(-10) mol cm(-2) was obtained. Based on this study, differential pulse voltammetric method was developed, validated and suggested for rapid electroanalytical determination of the low concentration of brimonidine. The linearity was achieved within the concentration range from 5 x 10(-7) to 5 x 10(-6) M with LOD = 1.6 x 10(-7) M and LOQ = 5.3 x 10(-7) M. The method was applied for brimonidine determination in pharmaceutical dosage form, eye drops.
Keywords:Brimonidine / Voltammetry / Glassy carbon electrode / Redox mechanism / Determination
Source:Electrochimica Acta, 2013, 106, 75-81
- Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford