Application of D-optimal experimental design method to optimize the formulation of O/W cosmetic emulsions
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ObjectiveThis study investigates the application of D-optimal mixture experimental design in optimization of O/W cosmetic emulsions. Cetearyl glucoside was used as a natural, biodegradable non-ionic emulsifier in the relatively low concentration (1%), and the mixture of co-emulsifiers (stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol and glyceryl stearate) was used to stabilize the formulations. MethodsTo determine the optimal composition of co-emulsifiers mixture, D-optimal mixture experimental design was used. Prepared emulsions were characterized with rheological measurements, centrifugation test, specific conductivity and pH value measurements. ResultsAll prepared samples appeared as white and homogenous creams, except for one homogenous and viscous lotion co-stabilized by stearic acid alone. Centrifugation testing revealed some phase separation only in the case of sample co-stabilized using glyceryl stearate alone. The obtained pH values indicated that all samples expressed mild acid ...value acceptable for cosmetic preparations. Specific conductivity values are attributed to the multiple phases O/W emulsions with high percentages of fixed water. Results of the rheological measurements have shown that the investigated samples exhibited non-Newtonian thixotropic behaviour. To determine the influence of each of the co-emulsifiers on emulsions properties, the obtained results were evaluated by the means of statistical analysis (ANOVA test). On the basis of comparison of statistical parameters for each of the studied responses, mixture reduced quadratic model was selected over the linear model implying that interactions between co-emulsifiers play the significant role in overall influence of co-emulsifiers on emulsions properties. ConclusionGlyceryl stearate was found to be the dominant co-emulsifier affecting emulsions properties. Interactions between the glyceryl stearate and other co-emulsifiers were also found to significantly influence emulsions properties. These findings are especially important as they can be used for development of the product that meets users' requirements, as represented in the study.
Keywords:cetearyl glucoside / co-emulsifiers / computer modelling / emulsions / formulation / stability / mixture design
Source:International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2014, 36, 1, 79-87
- Wiley, Hoboken