Unopposed Estrogen Supplementation/Progesterone Deficiency in Post-Reproductive Age Affects the Secretory Profile of Resident Macrophages in a Tissue-Specific Manner in the Rat
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Problem The influence of unopposed estrogen replacement/isolated progesterone deficiency on macrophage production of pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory mediators in the post-reproductive age was studied. Method of study Considering that in the rats post-ovariectomy the circulating estradiol, but not progesterone level rises to the values in sham-operated controls, 20-month-old rats ovariectomized at the age of 10 months served as an experimental model. Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and arginine metabolism end-products were examined in splenic and peritoneal macrophages under basal conditions and following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in vitro. Results Almost all peritoneal and a subset of splenic macrophages expressed the intracellular progesterone receptor. Ovariectomy diminished cytokine production by splenic (IL-1 beta) and peritoneal (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-10) macrophages and increased the production of ...IL-10 by splenic and TGF-beta by peritoneal cells under basal conditions. Following LPS stimulation, splenic macrophages from ovariectomized rats produced less TNF-alpha and more IL-10, whereas peritoneal macrophages produced less IL-1 beta and TGF-beta than the corresponding cells from sham-operated rats. Ovariectomy diminished urea production in both subpopulations of LPS-stimulated macrophages. Conclusion Although long-lasting isolated progesterone deficiency in the post-reproductive age differentially affects cytokine production in the macrophages from distinct tissue compartments, in both subpopulations, it impairs the pro- inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretory balance.
Source:American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 2015, 74, 5, 445-456
- Wiley, Hoboken