The role of artichoke leaf tincture (Cynara scolymus) in the suppression of DNA damage and atherosclerosis in rats fed an atherogenic diet
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Context: Polyphenols and flavonoids in artichoke leaf tincture (ALT) protect cells against oxidative damage. Objectives: We examined ALT effects on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and lipid profiles in rat plasma and gene expression in rat aorta [haemeoxygenase-1 (HO1), haemeoxygenase-2 (HO2), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)]. Materials and methods: Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups (n=6/group): The control group (CG) was fed with standard pellet chow for 11 weeks; the AD group was fed for a similar period of time with pellet chow supplemented with 2% cholesterol, 3% sunflower oil and 1% sodium cholate. The ADA group was fed with pellet chow (for 1 week), the atherogenic diet (see above) for the following 4 weeks and then with ALT (0.1 mL/kg body weight) and atherogenic diet for 6 weeks. According to HPLC analysis, the isolated main compounds in ALT were chlorogen...ic acid, caffeic acid, isoquercitrin and rutin. Results: Normalized HO-1 [0.11 (0.04-0.24)] and MCP-1 [0.29 (0.21-0.47)] mRNA levels and DNA scores [12.50 (4.50-36.50)] were significantly lower in the ADA group than in the AD group [0.84 (0.35-2.51)], p = 0.021 for HO-1 [0.85 (0.61-3.45)], p = 0.047 for MCP-1 and [176.5 (66.50-221.25)], p = 0.020 for DNA scores. HO-1 mRNA was lower in the ADA group than in the CG group [0.30 (0.21-0.71), p = 0.049]. Conclusions: Supplementation with ALT limited the effects of the atherogenic diet through reduced MCP-1 expression, thereby preventing oxidative damage.
Keywords:Oxidative damage / haemeoxygenase-1 / monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 / gene expression
Source:Pharmaceutical Biology, 2018, 56, 1, 138-144
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