An overview of molecular mechanisms in cadmium toxicity
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Cadmium (Cd), one of the most important environmental pollutants, can cause a number of toxic effects. These effects are the result of more than one mechanisms of toxicity, all interrelated in their complexity. Thus, it is difficult to identify a fine line between these mechanisms of Cd toxicity, making their understanding highly complicated. The most important mechanisms by which Cd manifests its toxic effects include changes in gene expression and inhibition of damaged DNA repair, interference of apoptosis and autophagy, oxidative stress, and interaction with bioelements. In this review, we will give a brief overview of the recent developments and findings on the most relevant general and specific mechanisms and molecular pathways of Cd toxicity.