Polyglycerol ester-based low energy nanoemulsions with red raspberry seed oil and fruit extracts: Formulation development toward effective in vitro/in vivo bioperformance
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This study focuses on the development of biocompatible oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions based on polyglycerol esters, as promising carriers for natural actives: red raspberry seed oil—RO and hydro-glycolic fruit extracts from red raspberry—RE and French oak—FE. Nanoemulsions were obtained via phase inversion composition (PIC) method at room temperature by dilution of microemulsion phase, confirmed by visual appearance, percentage of transmittance, microscopic, rheological and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) investigations. The results have shown that the basic RO-loaded formulation could be further enriched with hydro-glycolic fruit extracts from red raspberry or French oak, while keeping a semi-transparent appearance due to the fine droplet size (Z-ave: 50 to 70 nm, PDI value ≤ 0.1). The highest antioxidant activity (~92% inhibition of the DPPH radical) was achieved in the formulation containing both lipophilic (RO) and hydrophilic antioxidants (FE), due to their synergistic e...ffect. The nanoemulsion carrier significantly increased the selective cytotoxic effect of RO towards malignant melanoma (Fem-X) cells, compared to normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT). In vivo study on human volunteers showed satisfactory safety profiles and significant improvement in skin hydration during 2 h after application for all nanoemulsions. Therefore, polyglycerol ester-based nanoemulsions can be promoted as effective carriers for red raspberry seed oil and/or hydro-glycolic fruit extracts in topical formulations intended for skin protection and hydration.
Keywords:Nanoemulsion / Antioxidant activity / Biocompatible / French oak fruit extract / Low energy / MTT / Phase inversion composition (PIC) / Polyglyc-erol ester / Red raspberry seed oil / Skin hydration
Source:Nanomaterials, 2021, 11, 1, 1-21
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