Mycophenolate mofetil inhibits differentiation, maturation and allostimulatory function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells
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We have studied the effect of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a new drug used in prevention of transplant rejection, on differentiation, maturation and allostimulatory activity of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). MDDC were generated in vitro with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 in the presence or absence of MMF. MMF reduced the number of immature MDDC in culture, dose-dependently, by inducing apoptosis and inhibited their stimulatory activity on allogeneic lymphocytes. These changes correlated with down-regulation of costimulatory and adhesion molecules such as CD40, CD54, CD80 and CD86. No differences were observed in mannose receptor (MR)-mediated endocytosis, measured by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran. MDDC differentiated in the presence of MMF showed significantly reduced maturation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, as judged by lower expresson of CD83 and co-stimulatory molecules, lower pr...oduction of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-18 as well as lower stimulation of alloreactive T cells including naive CD4(+) CD45RA(+)T cells. In contrast, MDDC matured in the presence of MMF showed a more marked decrease in the FITC-dextran uptake than mature MDDC cultivated without MMF and the phenomenon correlated with down-regulation of the MR expression. These results suggest that MMF impairs differentiation, maturation and function of human MDDC in vitro, which is an additional mechanism of its immunosuppressive effect.
Keywords:alloreactivity / cytokine production / endocytosis / human dendritic cells / mycophenolate mofetil / phenotype
Source:Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 2003, 134, 1, 63-69
- Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford