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dc.creatorSatarug, Soisungwan
dc.creatorVesey, David A.
dc.creatorGobe, Glenda C.
dc.creatorYimthiang, Supabhorn
dc.creatorBuha-Đorđević, Aleksandra
dc.date.accessioned2023-02-07T09:59:19Z
dc.date.available2023-02-07T09:59:19Z
dc.date.issued2023
dc.identifier.issn2305-6304
dc.identifier.urihttps://farfar.pharmacy.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/4417
dc.description.abstractAn increased level of cadmium (Cd) in food crops, especially rice is concerning because rice is a staple food for over half of the world’s population. In some regions, rice contributes to more than 50% of the total Cd intake. Low environmental exposure to Cd has been linked to an increase in albumin excretion to 30 mg/g creatinine, termed albuminuria, and a progressive reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, termed reduced eGFR. However, research into albuminuria in high exposure conditions is limited. Here, we applied benchmark dose (BMD) analysis to the relevant data recorded for the residents of a Cd contamination area and a low-exposure control area. We normalized the excretion rates of Cd (ECd) and albumin (Ealb) to creatinine clearance (Ccr) as ECd/Ccr and Ealb/Ccr to correct for differences among subjects in the number of surviving nephrons. For the first time, we defined the excretion levels of Cd associated with clinically relevant adverse kidney health outcomes. Ealb/Ccr varied directly with ECd/Ccr (β = 0.239, p < 0.001), and age (β = 0.203, p < 0.001), while normotension was associated with lower Ealb/Ccr (β = −0.106, p = 0.009). ECd/Ccr values between 16.5 and 35.5 ng/L of the filtrate were associated with a 10% prevalence of albuminuria, while the ECd/Ccr value of 59 ng/L of the filtrate was associated with a 10% prevalence of reduced eGFR. Thus, increased albumin excretion and eGFR reduction appeared to occur at low body burdens, and they should form toxicity endpoints suitable for the calculation of health risk due to the Cd contamination of food chains.
dc.publisherMDPI
dc.rightsopenAccess
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.sourceToxics
dc.subjectcadmium
dc.subjectBMDL
dc.subjectBMDU
dc.subjecteGFR
dc.subjectalbumin-to-creatinine ratio
dc.subjectalbuminuria
dc.subjectcreatinine clearance
dc.subjectcreatinine excretion
dc.subjectestimated glomerular filtration rate
dc.subjecttoxicity threshold level
dc.titleHealth Risk in a Geographic Area of Thailand with Endemic Cadmium Contamination: Focus on Albuminuria
dc.typearticle
dc.rights.licenseBY
dc.citation.volume11
dc.citation.issue1
dc.citation.rankM21~
dc.identifier.wos000927682100001
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/toxics11010068
dc.identifier.pmid36668794
dc.identifier.scopus2-s2.0-85146771786
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://farfar.pharmacy.bg.ac.rs/bitstream/id/11787/Health_Risk_in_pub_2023.pdf
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion


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